A majestic beauty in the Dunedin Botanic Garden, in Dunedin, New Zealand.

Humanism and Karl Marx

Most read of the thoughts and writings of Karl Marx, one of the most influential revolutionaries in the 19th-century, whose magnum opus, Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto…

The Roman Bath in Bath, England.

Freedom and Meaning in an Age of Godlessness

Hardly is there any surprise that there is a sequel to The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck, considering its close-to-life writing style that is as thought-provoking…

Sunset on the Arno river in Florence, Italia.

Momentary Dust in a Vast Multiverse

A mentor and a friend once gifted me a book which is of a kind of self-help genre that I would not usually invest money or time in….

The Euro Sign at the Eurotower, Seat of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt, Germany.

Karl Marx and Class Struggles

‘The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles’ is what¬†Karl Marx, one of the most influential revolutionaries and a lesser-known philosopher,¬†believed to be…

The view outside the place where I called home during my undergraduate studies in the University of Otago, in Dunedin, New Zealand.

Politics and Peace

Hannah Arendt, one of the most influential political philosophers of the twentieth century, wrote a chapter with a rather peculiar title at the end of her book, The…

The Netherlands Open Air Museum in Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Categorical Imperative and Lying

Have you ever told a lie? If you have, however well-intentioned it was, even as to save a human life, Immanuel Kant, one of the most influential philosophers…

Bust of Socrates in the Trinity College Library in Dublin, Ireland.

Corrupting the Youth

In 399 B.C., accused by Meletus, Anytus and Lycon, Socrates was charged with the crimes of impiety against the gods of Athens and corruption of the youth. A…

English afternoon tea in York, England.

Perpetual Peace

More than 200 years ago in the year of 1795, the German philosopher Immanual Kant published Toward Perpetual Peace. In it, Kant, along with 6 preliminary articles that described…

Wandering around in the market in Marrakech, Morocco.

External World

What do hands do? For one English philosopher, George Edward Moore, hands are a living proof of the external world. Moore: Proof of an External World Before any…

Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss at the Louvre in Paris, France.

Egoism and Conflicting Interests

Egoism, whether in its descriptive or normative forms, suggests that our self-regarding, best interest is, and ought to be, the only reason for action. Over the years, however,…

Trekking along the Church Green in Witney, England.

Free will, moral responsibility and quantum mechanics

One quirk of quantum mechanics is that, in the realm of elementary particles, things are probabilistic. Knowing that our mind and body are made of these elementary particles,…

Looking out the Adriatic Sea in Ulcinj, Montenegro.

Computer with a Mind

The Chinese room argument by John Searle in 1980 suggested that, in contrast to the previously proposed Turing Test by Alan Turing in 1950, it is the ability…