‘The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles’ is what Karl Marx, one of the most influential revolutionaries and a lesser-known philosopher, believed to be the core of the problem with capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, and is how he started the dialogue in The Communist Manifesto, as a call to the oppressed proletariat around the world to rise against the bourgeoisie. The solution to class struggle, Marx suggested, was to abolishment of social class, for it is the source of all conflicts, as well as of money and state, for they are instruments of oppression by one social class over another. Means of production will be owned in common instead of the few in private.
Marx believed that accomplishment of such communist utopia required, in the process, a dictatorship of the proletariat, that is a state apparatus of the working class, with the primary goal of transforming private ownership of the means of production into the common, before it itself dissolves when the ideal of communism is attained. One problem among the many that thinkers and philosophers alike have identified, is that if money, as Marx rightly identified, is a mere instrument of oppression, the abolishment of which is no guarantee that there will arise no new instrument. This evidently was the problem of the communist states of late.
History, as it always does, revealed the true colour of the communist state, and perhaps of the human nature as well. The communist state established common ownership of the means of production to remove social classes and, in the process, annihilated the oppressive instrument of money. Oppression and struggle, however, did not go away. The unending pursuit of money instead transformed into the unending pursuit of political power in the communist state. It would then seem that it was not the social class that induced that struggle, rather it was the other way around. Social class was, perhaps, yet another instrument for the manifestation of the conflicts between men. Conflicts that are perhaps intrinsic to men, that are perhaps, sadly, of the human nature.