Espresso for a relaxing afternoon in Rome, Italia.

Artificial Intelligence and Responsibility

Not to be mistaken for the name of the latest gadget, Google Shoots is the name of a video featuring Google Assistant being commanded to fire a handgun at an object of innocence. The choice of the virtual assistant device was arbitrary. It could well have been Amazon Echo or any others that accept voice…

The Netherlands Open Air Museum in Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Categorical Imperative and Lying

Have you ever told a lie? If you have, however well-intentioned it was, even as to save a human life, Immanuel Kant, one of the most influential philosophers in modern Western philosophy, would say that you have done wrong. Kant and Categorical Imperative To see how Kant came to such a radical assertion, we have…

Psyche Revived by Cupid's Kiss at the Louvre in Paris, France.

Egoism and Conflicting Interests

Egoism, whether in its descriptive or normative forms, suggests that our self-regarding, best interest is, and ought to be, the only reason for action. Over the years, however, philosophers have identified inconsistency and contradiction, between the two forms of egoism. It formulates morality on a single and simple metric of self-interest that seems impossible to refute….

On top of the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, Italia.

God, Morality and Benevolence

Questions of right and wrong, and of good and bad, have puzzled humanity for ages. All these moral questions however seem only relevant for those in a diverse and possibly God-created society. If there were only one individual, ever, on a God-less earth, there would probably be nothing that distinct the right from the wrong…

Trekking along the Church Green in Witney, England.

Free will, moral responsibility and quantum mechanics

One quirk of quantum mechanics is that, in the realm of elementary particles, things are probabilistic. Knowing that our mind and body are made of these elementary particles, perhaps this probabilistic nature of them provides a basis for free will and moral responsibility despite a deterministic world. Probabilistic may it be, if we claim ownership…

Midnight sun on the Baltic Sea.

A Moral Machine

The Chinese board game of Go is a game of unprecedented complexity. Originated in China more than 2,500 years ago, the rules of the game are simple. Players take turns to place black or white stones on a board, trying to capture territory by surrounding empty space or the opponent’s stones which, once captured, can…

Wandering in a park in Helsinki, Finland.

Thousands of Lives or Your Little Finger

Many know Adam Smith as the father of modern economics. His work, The Wealth of Nations, provides a solid foundation for capitalist economy by means of division of labour and market allocation. His work on economics sparked the Industrial Revolution. If you were to choose between saving your little finger or saving thousands of lives in…